The OAH Magazine of History

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Beyond Dixie: The Black Freedom Struggle Outside of the South

from the editor

Marching in Marquette Park, by Carl R. Weinberg

When I was sixteen, my father taught me an unforgettable lesson: he took me to a neo-Nazi rally in Marquette Park on the southwest side of Chicago. It was not our first encounter with the members of the National Socialist Party of America (NSPA) led by Chicagoan Frank Collin. Not only had they publicly announced their plans to march through Skokie, a heavily Jewish suburb of Chicago, but the neo-Nazis regularly telephoned our house in the middle of the night. As my father explained, they resented his civil rights activism and publications in favor of school desegregation. The fact that he was Jewish—and a former Communist—didn’t help. Read online >


Coming of Age in Cleveland,
by Patrick D. Jones
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Northern Lights: The Black Freedom Struggle Outside the South,
by Thomas J. Sugrue
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“Selma of the North”: The Fight for Open Housing in Milwaukee,
by Patrick D. Jones
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“ The northern promised land that wasn’t”: Rosa Parks and the Black Freedom Struggle in Detroit,
by Jeanne Theoharis
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African American Women and the Politics of Poverty in Postwar Philadelphia,
by Lisa Levenstein
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Editor's Choice

The Many Meanings of Watts: Black Power, Wattstax, and the Carceral State,
by Donna Murch
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teaching resources

Editor's Choice

“Meeting Over Yonder”: Using Music to Teach the Movement in the North,
by Craig Werner
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Rethinking Race and Place: The Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project,
by Trevor Griffey
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Desegregating New York: The Case of the “Harlem Nine”,
by Hasan Kwame Jeffries and Patrick D. Jones

“Negro Sues City On School Zoning” (New York Times, July 18, 1957)
“2D School Suit Filed” (New York Times, Aug. 1, 1957)
“Don’t Forget, NY Has Its Own School Problem” (New York Amsterdam News, Sept. 28, 1957)
“Parents Close Special School” (New York Amsterdam News, October 18, 1958)

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Chicago SNCC and the Black Freedom Struggle,
Interview with Fannie Rushing
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bringing history alive

The Young Lords, Puerto Rican Liberation, and the Black Freedom Struggle,
Interview with José “Cha Cha” Jiménez
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on the cover

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Assaulted During March (©Bettman/Corbis). On August 5, 1966, King joined the Chicago Freedom Movement for an open housing march through Marquette Park in an all-white Chicago neighborhood on the Southwest Side. In response, a mob of local residents pelted marchers with firecrackers, sticks, knives, and rocks, one of which hit King in the face. In this photo, King is escorted to safety by bodyguard and United Auto Workers official Charles Mingo. Behind them (in white shirt) is Al Raby, chair of the Chicago-based Coordinating Council of Community Organizations. Directly behind Mingo is Lou House, WAAF radio talk show host. King lieutenant Andrew Young is to the right and back of Mingo. The Chicago movement, and the violent resistance it faced, is a key part of the story of the black freedom struggle “beyond Dixie.”