The Urbanization of the Eastern Gray Squirrel in the United States

Etienne Benson

Teaching the Article

Exercise 1: Pets or Pests?

Sciurus migratorius, Migratory... Digital ID: 400038. New York Public LibraryIn 1846, John James Audubon and John Bachman published the first volume of their Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America, a successor to Audubon’s tremendously successful Birds of America. The book featured scientific descriptions of various North American mammals, which were meant to be read alongside colorful, detailed prints produced by Audubon and his sons. The book’s section on the “migratory squirrel,“ today known as the eastern gray squirrel, gives a sense of how Americans saw this species before it became a common feature of the urban environment.



  1. The section on “Habits” in the entry on Sciurus migratoris (Migratory Gray Squirrel/Northern Gray Squirrel) in John James Audubon and John Bachman, The Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America (New York,, 1846), 265–73, available at the Internet Archive:
    Local copy of article (PDF)
  2. Illustration of Sciurus migratorius, Plate XXXV from Viviparous Quadrupeds:¬word=&d=&c=&f=4&k=4&lWord=&lField=&sScope=&sLevel=&sLabel=&total=153&num=20&imgs=20&pNum=&pos=36
    Local copy of img (JPG)