From Royal to Republican, by Caroline Winterer


Revolutionary era Americans were enamored with classical icons--the toga-draped divinities and laurel-crowned heroes who gave ancient substance to eighteenth-century politics, warfare, and empire. But, as Caroline Winterer shows in our featured article, classical images were far from static as newly independent Americans reshaped them to fit the needs of a modern republic with its own expansionist possibilities. In this installment of "Teaching the JAH," Winterer uses elements of a classical iconography to suggest the significance of its persistence through time in image and story.

Sections Guide

You may use the "Sections" menu on the upper right side of each page to navigate through this installment. Provided below is a summary of each section in this installment.


The full text of the article as it appeared in the March 2005 issue of the Journal of American History.

Teaching the Article

The author's comments about using this article in the classroom. This installment includes 4 exercises:

You may also download all the exercises along with their supporting documents and images as a single PDF file.

Primary Sources

A set of primary source documents and images selected for use in teaching this article.

Further Reading

A bibliography of related secondary sources recommended by the author.


A list of links to related Web sites.